Artists & Craftsmen

Artists & Craftsmen

Achille Collas (1795–1859) was a French engineer, inventor, writer and engraver. He invented the “réduction méchanique” process, which popularized small sculptures and has been credited with being almost entirely responsible for “the transformation of the bronze industry”.

Julius Moser studied at the Berlin Academy under the tutelage of Ferdinand August Fischer and Friedrich Drake. Moser studied abroad in Paris and Rome from 1857 to 1858. He was also a Royal professor in Berlin in 1888.

His sculptors consisted of single and groups of mythological and allegorical content, and are characterized by the sinuous forms. In his portrait busts and statues, there is a reflection of a sense of nature, simple and realistic. His statues and monuments are displayed at the National Gallery, Holy Trinity Church in Berlin, and a colossal bronze statue of King Friedrich of Prussia, just to name a few.

His main works are:

  • The monument of Cornelius de Greiff in Krefeld, the benefactor of the city
  • The seated sandstone figure of the art technology on the outside of the (old) National Gallery
  • The colossal statue of Christ blessing the Holy Trinity Church in Berlin (1875)
  • The war memorial Naumburg for Naumburg (Saale)
  • The bust of General Friedrich Wilhelm von Seydlitz in the western Feldherrenhalle the Hall of Fame of the Berlin armory
  • The Kurt Christoph Graf von Schwerin there -Büste
  • Some allegorical groups at Schloss Dwasieden the banker Adolph von Hansemann on Rügen .
  • The colossal bronze statues of the kings Friedrich Wilhelm I and Friedrich Wilhelm III. of Prussia over the columned entrance of the administration building of Hauptkadettenanstalt in United Lichterfelde in Berlin
  • The group of fisheries for the Belle-Alliance Bridge (now Halle Gate Bridge, Berlin-Kreuzberg )
  • The marble group of Amor , where a nymph steals the weapons
  • The Werner von Siemens -Sitzbild on Potsdamer Brücke in Berlin

and 1888 a monument to Adelbert von Chamisso for Monbijou Palace Berlin.

Adam Weisweiler (1750 — 1810) was a renowned French master cabinetmaker (ébéniste) in the Louis XVI period, working in Paris.

Weisweiler worked notably for the marchands-merciers, who alone could supply him with the Japanese lacquer panels that, combined with ebony and refined gilt-bronze, characterize some of his finest work. Weisweiler supplied the writing table of steel, lacquer and ebony and gilt-bronze for Marie Antoinette at the château de Saint-Cloud in 1784.  Also furniture for the Prince Regent (later George IV) at Carlton House, London.

Weisweiler specialised in small refined pieces, with fine lines, delicate legs with light interlaced stretchers, and gilt-bronze low-relief plaques and mounts, often decorated with panels of Japanese lacquer and Sèvres porcelain plaques, even panels of pietra dura.

Weisweiler weathered the Revolution and in 1810 he was supplying Queen Hortense and collaborating with Pierre-Philippe Thomire. After his retirement, his son Jean Weisweiler continued the workshop until 1844

Alexander Emil Ludovico Calandrelli (1834-1903) Born in Berlin. His Father was originally from Rome and moved to Germany in 1832. Calandrelli worked under big names such as Friedrich Drake and August Fischer until he opened his own studio in 1864. He traveled frequently to Italy throughout his career. He received numerous accolades and was considered one of the best sculptors of his time for still works with the accuracy required of great portraits.

Master clockmaker, renowned for creating very fine and complicated movements housed in high quality cases. Born at Evreux he was received as a maître in October 1729. Such was his skill that in March 1745 he was appointed Valet de Chambre-Horloger Ordinaire du Roi, to Louis XV and was one of the few to hold that position during the king’s reign. In 1749 he enjoyed further promotion when he replaced Jean V Martinot as Gouverneur du Grand Horloge du Palais. In addition to the king, Lefaucheur made clocks and watches for many of the French aristocracy.

As one of the finest makers of his day, examples of his work can be seen at Waddesdon Manor.

The movement was made by Alexander Lefaucheur (d. after 1772), who is known to have made very fine and complicated movements housed in high quality cases. Born at Evreux he was received as a maître in October 1729. In March 1745 he was appointed Valet de Chambre-Horloger Ordinaire du Roi to Louis XV and was one of the few to hold that position and also to have a shop during the king’s reign. In 1749 he was apointed Gouverneur du Grand Horloge du Palais. His work can be seen at Waddesdon Manor, Buckinghamshire, the Walters Art Gallery Baltimore, the Patrimonio Nacional Spain, the Musèe Historique at Orlèans and the Musèe National des Techniques in Paris.

Buckinghamshire, the Walters Art Gallery Baltimore, the Patrimonio Nacional Spain, the Musèe Historique at Orlèans and the Musèe National des Techniques in Paris. Some of Lefaucheur’s dials were supplied by Decla while his clock cases were made by leading bronziers including F. Goyer, J-J de Saint-Germain, Duhamel and the Caffiièris, of which the present example is attributed to Jacques Caffièri (1678-1755) on account of its high quality and similarity in design to other works from his oeuvre.

A Parisian cabinetmaker who specialized in the manufacture of luxurious French furnishings. Much admired for his 19th-century interpretations of Louis XV designs, his extraordinary works earned him a Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition Universelle of 1889. He specialized in high-quality, 18th-century revivals of Louis XV and Louis XIV-style furnishings. Beurdeley exhibited his works at the International Exposition of 1870, the Amsterdam Exposition of 1883, and the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889. Beurdeley made an indelible mark on the history of 19th-century French furnishing; His creations remain among the finest of the period.

Alphonse-Marie-Adolphe de Neuville (1835-1885) was born to wealthy parents at Saint-Omer, France. His paintings depict dramatic and intensely patriotic subjects illustrating episodes from the Franco-Prussian War, the Crimean War, the Zulu War and portraits of soldiers. Some of his paintings have been collected by the Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and by the Metropolitan Museum in New York.

(1724-1790) Maître Ébéniste Parisien, Prolific Parisian Master Cabinetmaker.  Creator of various styles:  Louis XIV, Régence, Louis XV, Transitional, and Louis XVI

He was the French cabinetmaker considered to be the preeminent artist in the field of marquetry, even called the most remarkable of all French cabinetmakers. Boulle was renowned as the leading cabinet-maker of French furniture in the 17th and 18th century. His fame in marquetry led to his name being given to the fashion he perfected of inlaying brass and tortoiseshell, known as Boulle. Boulle was granted lodgings in the galleries of the Louvre, which King Henri IV had set apart for the use of his most favored artists employed by the crown. Boulle received the post of Premier Ébéniste du Roi. Foreign princes and the great nobles, government ministers and financiers of his own country crowded to him with commissions. Boulle’s creations included commodes, bureaux, armoires, pedestals, clock cases and lighting-fixtures, richly mounted with gilt-bronze that he modeled himself.

Pointed out to the king by Colbert as “the most skilful in his trade”, Boulle was the author of a large number of pieces of furniture in bronze and marquetry which made him the leading cabinet-maker of French furniture in the 17th and 18th century. The creativity and richness of his pieces of furniture contributed to the reputation of Versailles in this art.
Beginning in 1672, he produced all kinds of pieces of furniture for Louis XIV, his family and the court, and the name of Boulle is inseparable from the copper and tortoiseshell marquetry that made his success: the famous “Boulle marquetry”. Although he was not its inventor, he devised a new process by cutting out patterns from these materials. He thus obtained two panels: the “part” and the “counterpart”. The first was in copper on a background of tortoiseshell, the second in tortoiseshell on a background of copper. In 1684-1692, the Grand Dauphin commissioned in Boulle marquetry the panelling and parquet of his study in Versailles, lost in the 18th century.

Another major innovation of Boulle was the application of bronzes on his pieces of furniture to protect the most fragile parts. Grotesque masks, claws, friezes, foliage patterns, etc. invaded console tables, desks, studies, etc. Bronzes that are also found on clocks, wall-clocks, candelabras, ink-well stands, etc.

The celebrated cabinet-maker did not limit himself to technical or aesthetic innovations, he also created new pieces of furniture. For the bedchamber of Louis XIV at Trianon, he revolutionize in 1708 a type of piece of furniture: the chest of drawers. On exhibition today in Versailles, the two chests of drawers of the king marvellously sum up the art of Boulle: the originality of this piece of furniture in its principle and its shape; marquetry of copper and tortoiseshell and an abundance of bronze details. Moreover, they are the rare pieces of furniture identifiable from his immense production. Boulle also made for the king large flat standing desks, salon tables, jewellery caskets, monumental pendulum clocks, etc.

The beauty and perfection of his pieces of furniture earned him immense celebrity in France and in Europe: Philippe V of Spain and Maximilian-Emmanuel of Bavaria were part of his prestigious clientele. Paradoxically, Boulle was often in financial difficulty: the king had to intervene on several occasions to protect him from his creditors. He went out of fashion after his death in 1732, but his pieces of furniture were reproduced with success in the mid-18th century and especially during the Second Empire.

Was an internationally renowned French art founder. He attended l’École des Beaux-Arts in 1842. Durenne purchased a small foundry in Sommevoire, near the Val d’Osne , Haute-Marne, France, and established The Durenne firm. By the 1860s, numerous examples of high quality bas-reliefs, fountains, statues and vases were being produced and the firm began exhibiting at various exhibitions, including the 1862 and 1867 International Exhibitions in Paris. Antoine Durenne was a founding member of the L’Ecole Nationale des Arts Décoratifs. In 1888 the foundry acquired the address of S.A.d.F. du Val d’Osne, Rue du Faubourg Poissonniere, 26, in Paris.

(1640 – 1714)  French master clockmaker Gaudron was one of the first Parisian clock makers to use the newly invented long pendulum in his clocks. He also invented some interesting clock movements with both simple and complicated astronomical indications. Gaudron’s works were both admired by colleagues and collected by the French nobility. Some of the most fashionable ébénistes of the period, including André-Charles Boulle, supplied elaborate clock cases for Gaudron’s movements.

The Aubusson tapestry manufacturer of the 17th and 18th centuries managed to compete with the royal manufacture of Gobelins tapestry and the privileged position of Beauvais tapestry. Tapestry manufacture at Aubusson, in the upper valley of the Creuse in central France, may have developed from looms in isolated family workshops established by Flemings that are noted in documents from the 16th century.
Typically, Aubusson tapestries depended on engravings as a design source or the full-scale cartoons from which the low-warp tapestry-weavers worked. As with Flemish and Parisian tapestries of the same time, figures were set against a conventional background of verdure, stylized foliage and vignettes of plants on which birds perch and from which issue glimpses of towers and towns.

Aubusson rugs were at first based on Persian models when a center of French carpet production began in the mid 17th century. These flat woven wool carpets were created mainly for the sophisticated wealthy European client to buy. Aubusson rugs graced the floors throughout all of Europe in the 17th and the 18th century.

Auguste Moreau (1834-1917), son of artist Jean-Baptist Moreau, Auguste was a renowned 19th century Parisian sculptor.

Moreau attended l’École des Beaux Arts in Paris, and debuted in 1861 exhibiting often at the Exposition Universelle in France.

(10 November 1821 – 6 August 1894) was a noted French sculptor in the Animaliers school, known for his portrayals of wild and domesticated animals. Caïn was born in Paris, and studied under Rude, Guionnet, and Pierre-Jules Mêne (whose daughter he married in 1852). His first exhibit in the Salon of 1846 was a wax model of a linnet defending her nest from a rat, later cast in bronze and shown at the 1855 Salon. Between 1846-1888, Caïn exhibited 38 models at the Salon. From 1868 onwards he concentrated on monuments, including the Chiens de meute at the Château de Chantilly, Le Lion de Nubie et sa proie in the Jardin du Luxembourg, and Tigress and Peacock in the Gardens of the Tuileries.

Baccarat Crystal is a French manufacturer of fine crystal glassware located in Baccarat, France. The company owns two museums: the Musée Baccarat in Baccarat and the Musée Baccarat in Paris.

In 1764 King Louis XV of France gave permission to found a glassworks in the town of Baccarat.
Production consisted of window panes, mirrors and stemware until 1816 when the first crystal oven went into operation. By that time over 3000 workers were employed at the site.

Baccarat was famous and requested by many royal houses and received its first royal commission in 1823. This began a lengthy line of commissions for royalty and heads of state throughout the world. In 1855 Baccarat won its first gold medal at the Worlds Fair in Paris after which they began to mark their creations towards the end of the 19th century.

Mathieu Befort (1813-1880) aka Befort Jeune – ‘Young Befort”, was a renowned Parisian cabinet maker, son of Jean-Baptiste Befort (died 1840), who established his Paris workshops in 1817 in the Faubourg Saint Honoré. The firm received a medal at the 1844 Exposition Des Produits de L’industrie Francaise. Later Befort Jeune was recorded working at Rue Neuve-Saint-Gilles between 1844-1880. The high quality of his work allowed him to become purveyor to Napoleon III and Empress Eugenie. Befort was very successful in creating pieces in the manner of Boulle and Renaissance. 

Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770-1844) was an internationally renowned Danish sculptor, in the Neo-Classical style, who spent most of his life in Italy. Thorvaldsen was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art when he was eleven years old winning many honors and medals. He traveled to Rome and continued his education, where he made a name for himself as a sculptor had his workshop in the stables of the Palazzo Barberini
In 1803, he started work on Achilles and Briseïs his first classically themed relief. In 1804 Thorvaldsen finished Dance of the Muses at Helicon, a group statue of Cupid and Psyche and other important works such as Apollo, Bacchus og Ganymedes.
Ludwig I of Bavaria commissioned a marble statue in 1808 of Adonis which is one of the few works carved solely by Thorvaldsen’s own hand.
Upon his return to Denmark in 1838, Thorvaldsen was received as a national hero. The Thorvaldsen Museum was erected to house his works next to Christiansborg Palace.
Among his more famous public monuments are the statues of Nicolaus Copernicus and Józef Poniatowski in Warsaw; the statue of Maximilian I in Munich; and the tomb monument of Pope Pius VII, the only work by a non-Catholic in St. Peter’s Basilica.

The Beurdeley family consisted of three generations of fine quality French cabinet makers working from 1818 to 1895. They were renowned for exceptional metalwork, with designs on exceptional eighteenth century pieces. Their gilding and hand chasing were of such a high quality that it is difficult to distinguish it from late eighteenth century work.

Beurdeley also specialized in the manufacture of luxurious French furnishings. Much admired for 19th-century interpretations of Louis XV designs, their extraordinary works earned them a Gold Medal at the Paris Exhibition Universelle of 1889. Their expertise was in high-quality, 18th-century revivals of Louis XV and Louis XIV-style furnishings. Beurdeley exhibited works at the International Exposition of 1870, the Amsterdam Exposition of 1883, and the Paris Exposition Universelle of 1889. Beurdeley made an indelible mark on the history of 19th-century French furnishing; Creations remain among the finest of the period.

Carl Kauba An Austrian sculptor born in Vienna in 1865. His teachers were Karl Waschmann (1848-1905), known for his ivory sculptures and portrait plaquettes of contemporary celebrities, and Stefan Schwartz (1851-1924), who exhibited in Paris, including the Exposition Universelle of 1900 where he won a gold medal.

Charles Bernel was a renowned French Ébéniste in the late 19th century. Bernel was one of a few highly skilled cabinetmakers producing furniture in the manner of earlier styles. Among his high caliber contemporaries were Paul Somani, Henry Dasson and Francois Linke, who are all noted for their high quality creations. Among Bernel’s esteemed clientele was H.M. Queen Mary, who owned a gilt bronze mounted fire screen that was placed in her Audience room at Buckingham Palace, London.  King Christian X and Queen Alexandrine of Denmark also had one presented to them during a visit to Paris.

Charles Cressent (1685–1768) was a French furniture-maker, sculptor and fondeur-ciseleur of the régence style. As the second son of François Cressent, Sculpteur du Roi, and grandson of Charles Cressent, a furniture-maker of Amiens, who also became a sculptor, he inherited the tastes and aptitudes, which were likely to make a finished designer and craftsman. Even more important perhaps was the fact that he was a pupil of André Charles Boulle. Trained in such surroundings, it is not surprising that he should have reached a degree of achievement which has to a great extent justified the claim that he was the best decorative artist of the 18th century. Cressent’s distinction is closely connected with the regency, but his earlier work had affinities with the school of Boulle, while his later pieces were full of originality.

Charles Georges Fervill-Suan (1847-1925) born in Le Mans, Sarthe, France, and was adopted by the painter Charles Suan. He studied at the École des Beaux-Arts of Paris, and was a pupil of François Jouffroy. He created medaillons and statuettes, in plaster, marble or bronze and exhibited at the Salon from 1872 until 1909. Fervill Suan was a member of the Société des Artistes Français.

Charles Hippolyte Marcellin Ferrat (1822-1882) was a French sculptor born in Aix-en-Provence, France. His work was commissioned by private collectors and city halls and are currently displayed in Museums throughout Europe and the United States

Charles-Guillaume Diehl (1811-1885) In addition to furniture Diehl created smaller objects like liquor cabinets, games and jewelry boxes. He participated in all the major international exhibitions during ths middle of the 19th century, starting with the Great Exhibition 1851, and won various prestigious medals throughout his career. His works can now be found in the Musée d’Orsay in Paris, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam and the Metropolitan Museum in NY.

Charles-Guillaume Winckelsen (1812-1871) Specializing in very high quality Louis XVI style creations of furniture and works of art, with a very distinguished clientele. Following his death Henri Dasson purchased his workshop and stock from his widow.

Charles-Romain Capellaro Paris 1826 – 1899. He entered l’École des Beaux Arts in 1842 and studied under the direction of David d”Angers, F. Rude and Duret; all highly recognized artists of that period.

(American 1810-1894) was an American sculptor who worked primarily in the Neo-Classical style. His best known works are the marble statues of Jonathan Trumbull and Roger Sherman enshrined in the National Statuary Hall Collection. Born in the U.S. he spend the second half of his life in Italy.

A renowned manufacturer of fine silver based in France since 1830. Artists and designers such as the famous Parisian Silversmith Antoine Perrin (AP), Man Ray, Jean Cocteau, Gio Ponti, Andrée Putman and Richard Hutton are among those whose creations have been made by Christofle.

Claude Galle (1759-1855) A renowned French Bronzier of the late Louis XVI and Empire periods. Galle created pieces for the palaces of Fontainbleau, Versailles, Saint-Cloud, Compiègne, and many in Italy. He also produced numerous pieces for Napoleon Bonaparte and received many awards. Today his work is found in the worlds most important museums and collections.

Claude Michel, aka Clodion (1738 – 1814)  Was a renowned French Master sculptor Born in Nancy, France. In 1755, Clodion went to Paris and was a pupil of J. B. Pigalle. In 1759 he obtained the grand prize for sculpture at the Académie Royale; in 1761 the silver medal for studies from models; and in 1762 he went to Rome. Catherine II of Russia was eager for him to go and stay in St Petersburg, but he returned to Paris. Among his patrons, were the chapter of Rouen, the states of Languedoc, and the Direction Générale. His works were frequently exhibited at the Salon. Among Clodion’s works, that are displayed all over the world, are a statue of Montesquieu and a Dying Cleopatra, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, (London). One of his last groupings represented Homer as a beggar being driven away by fishermen (1810).

Claude Michel works may be seen at: the Art Institute of Chicago, the Bowes Museum (County Durham, UK), the Carnegie Museum of Art (Pittsburgh), the Courtauld Institute of Art (London), the Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, the Frick Collection (New York City), the Getty Museum (Los Angeles), the Kimbell Art Museum (Texas), the Louvre (Paris), the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Musée Cognacq-Jay (Paris), the Museum of Fine Arts (Boston), Musée des Beaux-Arts (Bordeaux), Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen (Rotterdam), the National Gallery of Armenia, the National Gallery of Art (Washington.), the Norton Simon Museum (Pasadena) and the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

(1742-1810) Born in Germany, but emigrated to Paris in 1765 where he became a master cabinetmaker. Mauter aka Motaire, was cabinetmaker to the Comte d’Artois, brother to King Charles X. One of the most prolific producers of furniture at many royal homes and castles, but subsequently much destroyed during the revolution. Mauter continued to manufacture, notably tables of all kinds, and his business was still prosperous after his death.

(1878-1956) Studied with Daniel Chester French, apprenticed with James Earle Fraser and won multiple scholarships and prizes. Following the birth of her children, her subject matter changed, representing them posing in her sculptures, often holding ducks, turtles, frogs and other creatures. Duck Baby was the beginning of a series of garden sculptures for which she is popular today and was the popular hit of the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. The exposition handbook stated: “In the presence of so much that is weighty and powerful, the popularity of Duck Baby is a significant and touching indication of the world’s hunger for what is cheerful and mirth-provoking.”

Born in Paris, France on August 24, 1833.
Picault studied with the painter Henri Royer and exhibited regularly at the Paris Salon between 1863 and 1914. Picault died in 1915 in Paris, France. Today, his works are held in the collections of the Troyes Museum in Paris and the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Chambery. He was a prolific French Orientalist sculptor known for his bronzes depicting allegorical and mythological scenes. Picault often chose warriors and heroes as subjects

Ernest Damé (1845-1920) Born in Saint-Florentin, France.Damé was a renowned Parisian sculptor. He was a student of Lequesne-Cavelier and Guillaume. He started in Le Salon Des Artistes Francais and from there he would regularly participate in expositions. Recognized monuments throughout France have been known to have been done by him including the statue of Claude Chappe located on the Boulevard Saint -Germain another of Victor Jacquemont located at the L’Hotel de Ville de Paris. Also,  ‘Raphael’ which can be found at the square de la Guillotiere in Lyon. Currently the Museum de Lyon has the sculpture of Cephale et Procris which Ernest Damé obtained the second place medal in 1875. In 1889 and also in 1900, he obtained the bronze medal at the Universal Éxposition in Paris.

Ernest Henri Dubois (Born 1863 – 1930), was a French sculptor. He enrolled in 1881 at the École des Arts décoratiif and then attended the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris where he studied under Alexandre Falguière, Henri Chapu and Jules Chaplain. It was his commission to carry out the sculptural work on the tomb of Jacques-Bénigne Bousset in Meaux Cathedral, that highlighted his career and was then awarded a Medal of Honour, and subsequently Dubois became a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur.

Étienne Maurice Falconet (1 December 1716 – 24 January 1791) is counted among the first rank of French Rococo sculptors, whose patron was Madame de Pompadour. Falconet came to prominent public attention in the Salons of 1755 and 1757 with his marble statues of L’Amour and the Nymphe descendant au bain (also called “The Bather”), which is now at the Louvre. In 1757 Falconet was appointed director of the sculpture atelier of the new Manufacture Royale de Porcelaine at Sèvres.

He remained at the Sèvres post until he was invited to Russia by Catherine the Great in September 1766. At St Petersburg he executed a colossal statue of Peter the Great in bronze, known as the Bronze Horseman, together with his pupil and stepdaughter Marie-Anne Collot. In 1788, back in Paris he became director of the Académie des beaux-arts. Many of Falconet’s religious works, commissioned for churches, were destroyed at the time of the French Revolution

Étienne-Henri Dumaige (1830–1888), French Bronzier. A student of Féuchère and Dumont. Dumaige exhibited his sculptures at The Salon, at the Acadèmie des Beux Arts in Paris, from 1863-1886.

Étienne-Maurice Falconet (1716-1791) is among the highest rank of French Rococo sculptors, whose patron was Mme de Pompadour. Falconet attended l’Académie des Beaux-Arts in 1754. He was appointed as the director of sculpture at the  Manufacture Royale de Porcelaine at Sèvres, until he was invited to Russia by Catherine the Great in 1766. In 1788 he returned to Paris and became director of the Académie des Beaux-Arts. Many of Falconet’s religious works, commissioned for churches, were destroyed at the time of the French Revolution.

Ferdinand Barbedienne (1810 – 1892), a renowned French Bronzier. Between 1850 and 1854 his firm, Barbedienne, provided furnishings in the Renaissance Revival style for the Hôtel de Ville, Paris. They received numerous medals at the International Exhibitions, including medals in three different classes at the International Exhibition of 1862 in London.

Ferdinand Levillain (1837-1905) was a renowned sculptor who exhibited at the Paris Salon from 1861. He was awarded a Silver Medal at the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle, and was awarded the ‘Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur’ by the French state in 1892.

François Lesage was a renowned French 19th century clockmaker in Paris. Lesage received the honor of Master Clockmaker in the mid 19th century, and was clockmaker to the Emperor Napoleon III. It is possible that he is connected to Antoine-Nicolas Lesage (1784-1841) who was a noted Ébéniste during the Restoration and the reign of Charles X.

François Linke (1855-1946) Renowned 19th Century Parisian Ébéniste. Linke created historical interpretations of Louis XV and Louis XVI styles. Early in his career his workshop supplied furniture for more established makers such as Jansen and Krieger Linke displayed at the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1900 where he received a gold medal for his exhibition. Linke’s stand was the biggest show in the history of art furniture in the year 1900. Visitors to his stand included; the King of Sweden, king of Belgium, Prince Radziwill, the Prince, d’Arenberg and the President of France Emile Loubet, among many other counts and heiresses from the Americas.

At a time when other more established furniture businesses such as those of Beurdeley and Dasson were closing down, he made a huge investment in his stand and the furniture he supplied for it. By that time Linke’s worldwide reputation and expertise was unmatched by any of his peers. In 1906 Linke recieved the highest distinction of France; the Croix de la Légion d’Honneur. The Art Journal ‘Revue’ described Linke’s style as ‘Entièrement Nouveaux’. His characteristic sculptural gilt mounts reflected the influence of marquetry genius André-Charles Boulle.

François Michel Sigisbert (1728-1811) Renowned French Sculptor. Studied at l’Académie Saint-Luc. Commissioned by the Prussian King and created in Berlin before returning to Paris, where he continued with works of fancy and fantasy. He displayed at several Expositions in France including the Salon du Louvre.

Frédéric Schmit (1830-1880) was a renowned French Ebéniste of the 19th century. Active in Paris at the Rue de Charonne starting in 1856. Schmit received Gold Medals at the 1878 and 1889 Expositions Universelles in Paris.

Frédéric-Louis Durand (1874 – 1964) The stamp F. Durand & Fils refers to Gervais’s son Frédéric -Louis and grand son Pierre. Frédéric took over his father’s business in 1920 and was active until 1934.

Friedrich Gornik (1877-1947) – A late 19th century Austrian sculptor born in Carinthie, Austria. He was best known for his studies of animal groupings in bronze.

Fumière et Cie, was part of Thiébaut Frères, A renowned French bronzier/ founderie in the mid 19th century, devoted to works of art. This distinguished company worked with famous sculptors and other bronziers like Barbedienne, Belleuse, Dubois, Carpeaux and d’Angers. They took part in many French exhibitions and created many historical monuments in and around Paris including Saint Michel striking down the dragon designed by Duret for the Saint-Michel’s fountain in Paris, and Napoleon I designed by Dumont for the Vendôme column. Others include: Gloria Victis by Mercié, a statue of Alexandre Dumas Père and the vase called Le Poème de la Vigne, that is currently in the San Francisco Museum, a statue depicting Charlemagne by Marquet brothers, and a reduction of the Statue of Liberty made by Bartholdi which is now on Grenelle’s bridge in Paris. In 1898, Rodin signed a contract with this company regarding the casting of two of his works in different sizes: Saint John the Baptist and Triumphant youth.

(1664-1730) was born in Antwerp and is renowned for his paintings of still lifes, floral still lifes, fruit still lifes and art galleries. He became master in the Antwerp Guild of St. Luke

Georges Jacob (Burgundy, 1739-1814) In 1765 Jacob was considered one of the most prominent Parisian master craftsmen, producing carved, painted and gilded work for the French Royal Châteaux. All in the early Neo-Classical style that is associated with Louis XVI.

Gervais-Maximilien-Eugène Durand, Paris (1839-1920) Maison Durand was established in 1870 Paris, producing top quality 18th century style furniture. Durand participated at the Exposition Universelle in 1889, where he received a silver medal. Durand was commended as a very talented and modest cabinetmaker creating furniture of the highest caliber, not only the creator but also the designer of each piece, and notably following in the footsteps of Masters such as Beurdeley and Dasson. In 1890 his son Frederic-Louis joined him and the firm was renamed Durand et Fils

Giovan Battista Ruoppolo (1629–1693), Born and lived his life in Napes Italy. Ruoppolo was a Neapolitan painter from the Baroque era, notable for painting still-lifes. He was a disciple of Paolo Porpora (1617–1673), a contemporary of Salvatore Rosa.

Giovanni Marria Benzoni (August 28 1809 – April 28 1873) Born in Songavazzo and died in Rome.He was a student of Giuseppe Fabri and of Saint Luc Academy in Rome. His works were known as the highest of quality and he produced pieces for Duke Scotti of Pope Pie V. He most recognized works remain to be Innocence Protected by Fidelity, Young Girl Watching a Butterfly and Gratitude.

(1851-1920)  sculptor born in Cannobio, Italy. At age fourteen he went to Milan where he studied sculpture for 4 years at l’Academie. Winning first prize, Branca is one of the most eminent sculptors of the Lombard School. His Louis XVII life size marble statue was sold in Paris in 1878. He received the Mention Honorable at the Salon de Paris in 1889.

Giuseppe Maggiolini (1738 – 1814), Born in Milan, Italy. Maggiolini was a renowned and preeminent Italian marquetry cabinetmaker (ebanista) in Milan in the late18th century. Specializing in Neoclassical forms, veneered with richly detailed marquetry vignettes, often within complicated borders. Maggiolini collaborated on designs for the wedding of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, the Habsburg governor of Lombardy, initiating Maggiolini’s work for the Habsburgs, rulers of Lombardy, for which he opened a second workshop, in Milan. In 1771 Maggiolini produced the marquetry flooring in the Palazzo di Corte in Milan. In 1777 he produced marquetry floors and furniture for the royal villa near Monza. In 1780 Maggiolini was commissioned for a new façade for the Church of Saints Gervasio and Protasio. Maggiolini’s characteristic furniture consists of commodes and chests, coffers and writing-desks and tables, inlaid with a wide variety of European woods and exotic woods imported from abroad, used in their natural colors or tinted. In 1806 he was commissioned to produce a writing table for Napoleon’s coronation in Milan; bringing forth more commissions, from Prince Eugène de Beauharnais and other Bonapartes. Some of Maggiolini’s pieces are on display at the Sforza Castle museum in Milan.

Guglielmo Baldi, Italian sculptor mid – late 19th century from Rome Italy.
Little is known about this talented sculptor except that he exhibited several works in Turin in the 1880s.
One of these was Jael, which he presented at the Esposizione Generale Italiana di Torino in 1884

Guillaume Grohé (1805-1885) Grohé Frères was established in 1829, by the brothers Guillaume and Jean-Michel. Their creations were predominately in the Louis XVI style. A very successful Parisioan company with many patrons from the French royal household as well as H. M. Queen Victoria. The firm took part in all major exhibitions from 1834 to 1878 and won the highest distinctions. Guillaume was made Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur in 1849. Pieces by Grohé are now in the permanent collections of leading French museums.

Haentges Frères was a celebrated firm of Bronziers and cabinet-makers working in Paris in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Their style was primarily influenced by Louis XV and Louis XVI.

Henri Picard (1831-1890) was a renowned 19th century French Bronzier, and founded The Maison Picard Paris, in 1831. The firm was active until circa 1890. Picard’s works are known for high quality chasing and magnificent mercury gilding. Picard was commissioned by Emperor Napoleon III for decorative items for his apartments in the Royal and Imperial Château Fontainebleau, which are now on exhibit in the Louvre. As well, an important pair of twelve-light candelabras, that remain in the Musée du Louvre today. Henri Picard is highly regarded by antique experts and collectors alike.

Henri –Auguste Fourdinois (1830-1907) The Maison Fourdinois was established in 1835 by Alexandre-Georges Fourdinois (1799-1871) who was one of the most prominent Ébénistes under Napolèon III’s reign and later to Empress Eugènie. He was awarded numerous distinctions and medals , the highest being made Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur and a Médaille d’honneur at the 1855 Paris Exposition Universelles and two Médailles de Grandes Excellence at the 1862 London exhibition. Henri-Auguste followd in his fathers footsteps winning disctinction in botht the 1867 and 1878 Expositions Universelles, . One of his creations; an ebony side-cabinet Is now in the permanent collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.

Henri-Louis Courvoisier was born in 1796 in La Chaux-de-Fonds, the son of Louis Courvoisier (1758-1832) With his brother Philippe-Auguste Courvoisier he founded in 1842, the company “Courvoisier Frères”.  Brother Frederic Alexandre Courvoisier (Fritz) (1799-1854) worked independently but mostly abroad was also representative for the company Courvoisier Frères. Father Louis Courvoisier was a watchmaker and co-owner of the company, which was renamed Robert & Courvoisier.  In 1862, the company received a Special Mention at exhibition in London and a Silver Medal at the Exhibition in Paris in 1876 and again in 1889.

Henry Dasson (1825–1896) was a renowned 19th century Parisian maker of gilt-bronze mounted furniture. Unlike other cabinetmakers of the time Dasson began his career as a bronze sculptor, and consequently one characteristic of his work is the quality of his bronze and more precisely of the chasing. Dasson specialized in the production of Louis XIV, XV and XVI style furniture using the finest gilt-bronze mounts, and was recognized as a brilliant ‘ébéniste and bronzier’.  He participated in the 1878 Paris Exposition Universelle and exhibited a number of pieces in the Louis XV and XVI styles, as well as pieces of his own modified 18th century designs. Including a table entirely in gilt-bronze, purchased by Lord Dudley. His copy of the celebrated ‘Bureau du Roi’ sold to Lady Ashburton. His works prompted critic Louis Gonse to comment: “newcomer Henri Dasson is rapidly rising to great heights through the perfection of his high quality creations, we warmly applaud him”

Dasson was made a Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur in 1883 and was awarded the Grand Prix Artistique at the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle.

Honoré Pons (1773-1851 Paris ), Pons known as the best and most influential clock maker of the 19th century. In 1798 he worked as a clockmaker for the prestigious Lepaute. In 1803 he set up as a clockmaker at Rue de la Huchette in Paris, located close to Place St-Michel where many of the distinguished clockmakers such as Berthoud, Bréguet and Lépine were based. In 1807 Pons was commissioned by Napoleon’s Interior Minister. Over the years he received many gold and silver medals. In 1819 Pons received the highest acclamation by the Légion d’Honnerur. A collection of his clocks are on display at Musée de l’Horlogerie de Saint-Nicolas-d’Aliermont, and Musée des Arts et Métiers

Hubert-Joseph Heubès was a master ebeniste established in Paris and also exhibited at the “Exposition Universelle” in 1867. Heubès was expert in the Boulle and Florentine Hartstone technique.

Ignaz Pleyel (1757-1831) was active as a composer, music publisher and piano builder. He founded the firm of Pleyel et Cie in Paris in 1807. Maintaining a close relationship with many famous musicians, including Frederic Chopin. A concert hall, Salles Pleyel, was opened in 1830, and in this hall Chopin gave his first (1830) and last (1848) Parisian concerts. Pleyel pianos were the choice of composers such as Debussy, Saint-Saëns, Ravel, de Falla and Stravinsky.

(1796-1868 Paris) French Porcelain maker, designer.

Jacob Mardouché (who went by Petit, his wife’s surname) studied painting in Antoine Jean Gros’s workshop. In 1820, he earned his certification as a porcelain manufacturer. He made several journeys to Italy, Switzerland and Germany before settling down for a few years in England, where he studied various industries and painted stage sets.

When most Parisian porcelain makers were creating models in the Neo-Classical style, Petit went against tradition and created in a wide variety of styles and decoration. His extravagant styles appeared when the art of the porcelain industry was falling into decline, and his success offered a boost to the decorative porcelain trade.

Petit returned to France around 1830-1831 and published an important interior design collection composed of hundreds of drawings depicting models of vases, furniture, chairs, and silver and bronze objects. His tome presented a variety of previous styles, with an obvious preference for Antiquity and Gothic styles. After a short period at Sèvres, he opened a small workshop in Belleville.

His success was fast and spectacular, and in 1833 he bought the porcelain factory of Baruch Weil at Fontainebleau. The factory was appreciated by Louis XVIII, Charles X and the Duchess of Berry.

(born Jean-Jacques Pradier, (1790 – 1852) was a Swiss-born French sculptor best known for his work in the Neo-Classical style.

Born in Geneva, Pradier left for Paris in 1807 to work with his elder brother, Charles-Simon Pradier, an engraver. He attended the École des Beaux-Arts in 1808. He won a Prix de Rome that enabled him to study in Rome from 1814 to 1818 at the Villa Médicts. Pradier made his debut at the Salon in 1819. In 1827 he became a professor at the École des Beaux-Arts

Jean Bulio Was born in Fabregues, in the Hérault region, France on December 1827 and died in Montpellier, France  in 1911. Bulio was a renowned French Sculptor. He attended l’Ecole-des-Beaux, and exhibited at the Salon in 1859. Damé received honorable mentions in 1882 and 1886.

Jean-Antoine Houdon (1741-1828) A prominent French Neoclassical sculptor born in Versailles. Houdon is famous for his portrait busts and statues of philosophers, inventors and political figures. In 1785 he sculpted Benjamin Franklin upon his invitation to Mount Vernon where Franklin modeled for him. He was made a Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur in 1804.

(1851-1919) was a French Sculptor. He studied in Marseille and at the École des Beaux-Arts of Toulouse and Paris. He won the Grand Prize at the Exposition Universelle in 1889 and belonged to the Society of French Artists. Several of his works are at the Musée de Jacobins d’Auch.

Jean-Baptiste Pigalle (26 January 1714 – 20 August 1785) was a French sculptor.He entered the Académie Royale and became one of the most popular sculptors of his day. His earlier work, such as Child with Cage (model at Sèvres) and Mercury Fastening his Sandals (Berlin, and lead cast in Louvre). His nude statue of Voltaire, dated 1776 (initially in the Institut de France, purchased by the Louvre in 1962), and his tombs of Comte d’Harcourt (c. 1764) (Notre Dame de Paris) and of Marshal Saxe, completed in 1777.

Jean-François Oeben, or Johann Franz Oeben (9 October 1721 Heinsberg near Aachen – Paris 21 January 1763) was a French ébéniste influential French cabinetmaker noted for his outstanding marquetry and for his ingenious mechanical devices. Oeben came to France at an unknown date and in 1751 entered the workshop of Charles-Joseph Boulle, a son of the famous cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle, in the Louvre. He was soon patronized by the king’s mistress Mme de Pompadour and in 1754 was appointed ébéniste du roi (“royal cabinetmaker”). Much of his work was done for the royal household. His royal warrant gave him the privilege of a workshop in the Gobelins factory, although he later moved to the Arsenal. His masterpiece is the bureau du roi, a desk for the king that he began in 1760 and was working on at the time of his death.

Jean-Henri Jansen (1854-1929) Maison Jansen had an outstanding reputation internationally. In 1885 Jansen was awarded a Silver Medal at both the 1883 Amsterdam Exhibition and the 1889 Éxposition Universelle in Paris. Jansen’s commissions included pieces for William III of the Netherlands, Alfonso XII of Spain and the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Maison Jansen internationally renowned and were clients of François Linke.

( D. 1793) A renowned master cabinet maker towards the end of King Louis XVI reign. Working with Master Martin Carlin he created a luncheon table for Queen Marie Antoinette who presented it to Lady Auckland of England and is now housed at the Kensington Museum. Other examples of his work can be viewed at the Chateau de Versailles.

Jean-Joseph Chapuis (1765-1864) was a renowned French cabinetmaker.

Chapuis was born in Brussels and trained in Paris, where he became a master Ébéniste entitling him to use a personal estampille – mark, on his work.
Furniture by Jean-Joseph Chapuis are rarely found in collections outside France. Pieces of his collection can be viewed at The museum of Vleeshuis in Antwerp and the museum of Saint-Josse-ten-Noode in Belgium.

Jean-Joseph Lepaute (1769-1846) born in Bieves, France was a major figure in the field of horology and a superb craftsman. He was appointed clockmaker to Napoléon. Lepaute constructed clocks for other important residences including the Palais de Fontainbleau the Château de St. Cloud and Château de Comilègne. In 1821 he was appointed official clockmaster to Paris. An example of a Louis XVI regulator by Lepaute. C. 1770 is housed at Windsor Castle.

(1840-1890) a renowned 19th century French sculptor. Trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and took part in Les Éxpositions de Paris. In 1899 was awarded with Le Prix de Rome.

Jean-Pierre Tahan (1813-1892) was a renowned French Ébéniste, established in Paris on Rue de la Paix. Tahan was charged in creating for Napoléon III , for his Imperial residence. A colleague of Paul Sormani, Tahan participated at the Paris Salles d’Expositions, and received a silver medal there in 1849, and the gold medal in 1867. In 1852, Tahan received a silver medal in London.

Johan Zekh was one of Saint Petersburg’s most celebrated masters of the 18th century. Zekh created 21 chandeliers from 14 different models for the Mikhailovsky Castle.

Joseph-Emmanuel Zwiener (1849-1895) ranks among the best Haut Luxe Parisian cabinetmakers of the late 19th century, mainly working in the Louis XV style. Born in Herdon, Germany in 1849, he arrived in Paris by 1880 and set up his workshop at 12 rue de la Roquette, where he remained until his death in 1895. At the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889, he received the gold medal and a note of high praise from the jurists: ” His work is at the forefront, by the richness and boldness of his finished works, as regards the inlays and fine bronze mounts” (freely translated: “dès ses débuts d’une Exposition Universelle, il c’est mis au premier rang par la richesse, la hardiesse et le fini de ses meubles incrustés de bronzes et fort habilement marquetés.”)

The exceptional quality of Zwiener’s craftsmanship and extensive use of fine gilt-bronze is comparable to the work of renowned Ébéniste François Linke.

Josse-François-Joseph Leriche (1741 – 1812), Mons, France. Leriche was a renowned French sculptor. He headed the Sèvres studio in France creating many statues in Biscuit porcelain displayed in the Musée de Sèvres and participated in the Grand Salon in 1801. Leriche often worked with Simon Boizot.

Julien Le Roy (1686-1759) was a major 18th-century Parisian clockmaker and watchmaker. Born in Tours in 1686, by the age of 13, he had already made his first clock. In 1699, he moved to Paris further training. He became maitre horloger in 1713 and later juré of his guild. Further appointments followed, including the Directorship of the Société des Arts, but the pinnacle of his achievement was being appointed clockmaker (Horloger Ordinaire du Roi) toking Louis XV in 1739. He carried on his business from Rue du Harlay until his death in 1759. His son Pierre Le Roy carried on the business until the early 1780s. Another son, Julien-David Le Roy (1724–1803), was aNeo-Classical architect and archaeologist, author of the Ruins of the Most Beautiful Monuments of Greece. Examples of his work can be found in many major museums including the Louvre, Paris, and the Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

(1804-1923) maison parisienne créée par Marie Desarnaud, née Marie Jeanne Rosalie Charpentier, en 1804, était célèbre sous la Restauration. Elle fut la première commerçante de son époque à proposer des pendules, candélabres, vases d’ornement qui associe le cristal taillé et le bronze doré.

L’Escalier de cristal, créée en 1804 par Marie Desarnaud était situé au Palais royal, n° 162 et 163. Elle fut reprise vers 1847 par Lahoche et Boin, puis Lahoche et Pannier en 1857 et enfin Pannier Frères de 1890 à 19232 À la création de son établissement, Marie Desarnaud à l’idée d’associer le cristal taillé avec le bronze doré. La qualité de ses créations est unanimement reconnue lors de l’exposition des produits de l’industrie française de 1819 ou elle obtient la médaille d’or avec Table de toilette de la duchesse de Berry3.

Le Maison Colin was a very prestigious foundry founded in Paris in 1843 and it was located at 29 rue Sévigné. Renown for their high quality castings, it exhibited in various World’s Fairs including the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair and the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris were it was awarded gold medal. The Maison worked with several of the top Parisian bronziers of the era.

Louis Soubrier was an early 19th century French master cabinetmaker inspired by original models from the 18th century. Maison Soubrier – Paris, has been offering their clients, high quality and rare pieces for over 150 years.

(1815-1865) was a pupil of David d’Angers. Buhot attended l’Ecole des Beaux when he was seventeen. A regular exhibitor at the Paris Salon from 1837 until the year he died when he exhibited the original plaster of this statue. It has been suggested that Buhot’s Hebe and Jupiter’s Eagle takes inspiration from Francois Rude’s interpretation of the same theme, which he created for his native city of Dijon, which was unveiled in 1855.

Louis-Léopold Boilly (1761-1845) Boilly was a renowned French painter known for portrait paintings. He also produced a vast number of genre paintings vividly documenting French family life. His life and work spanned the eras of monarchical France, the French Revolution, the Napoleonic Empire, the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy. Boilly was awarded a medal by the Parisian Salon in 1804 for his work The Arrival of a Mail-coach in the Courtyard of the Messageries. In 1833 he was decorated as a Chevalier of the nation’s highest order, the Légion d’Honneur.

Louis-Simon Boizot (1743–1809) was a French sculptor whose models for biscuit figures for Sèvres porcelain are better-known than his large-scale sculptures.

At sixteen, Boizot became a student at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and worked in the atelier of the sculptor René-Michel Slodtz (1705–1764), with whom Houdon also trained. Boizot took the Prix de Rome for sculpture in 1762, for a sojourn at the French Academy in Rome (1765–70). Boizot exhibited at the annual salons until 1800. From 1805 he held a chair at the Academie des BeauxArts. Among many others, Boizot executed the sculpture for the Fontaine du Palmier erected in 1808 in the Place du Châtelet, Paris

Ludwigsburger Porzellan-Fabrik, (1744-1805 ),Germany.

Ludwigsburg was one of the leading European manufacturers of porcelain.
In 1744 Duke Carl Eugen declared the founding of the Ludwigsburger Porzellan-Fabrik.
Ludwigsburg porcelain had a grey-brown color, unlike the white of other German porcelains. The kaolin used was brought in from Hornberg and produced a very malleable body clay, well-suited to the figural work Ludwigsburg produced and that Duke Carl Eugen preferred. Riedel designed the forms and ornaments. The painter Steinkopf, preferred to decorate in landscapes and equine subjects.

Maison Forest was established at 14 rue Pierre-Picard in 1883 and at 31 rue Cambaceres, Paris. The furniture produced Maison Forest is renowned for high quality gilt-bronze mounts and for notable Ébenisterie – cabinetmaking, as well as fine decoration.

Maison Krieger was founded by Antoine and Nicolas Krieger in Paris in 1826. Producing and taking part in major exhibitions of the 19th century, including the Exposition Universelle and the 1849 Exposition des Produits de l’Industrie in Paris. Receiving a medal for their exhibition at the Universal Exhibitions of 1851 in London, and again in 1855, Paris. Maison Krieger created many pieces in Louis XV and Louis XVI styles, as well as 18th century and Empire designs. Maison Krieger is recorded to have been an active client of François Linke.

Maison L.Cueniere, JME, were renowned French cabinetmakers in the late 19th century. They exhibited during the 1900 Universal Exhibition, in Paris. Cueniere collaborated with the largest and most prestigious cabinetmakers of the nineteenth century, notably collaborations with the Maison l’Escalier de Cristal. Their collaboration resulted in numerous pieces of eighteenth century style for which they were awarded the silver medal at the Universal Exhibition.

Maison Odiot was founded in 1690 Paris by Jean-Baptiste-Gaspard Odiot. His grandson Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot (1763-1850) became master in 1785. Following the retirement of silversmith Henri Auguste in 1809, Jean-Baptiste-Claude Odiot became purveyor to the Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte.
His son Charles-Nicolas took over in 1823 and became purveyor by appointment to King Louis-Philippe and the Orléans family.
His son Jean-Baptiste-Gustave Odiot, registered his mark on 31 October 1865. Between 1894 and 1906 Gustave Odiot was associated with Emile Prévost and Paul Edouard Récipon. They introduced the maker’s mark: “PR”, above an antique lamp and “Cie” below. The Odiot family managed the firm during more than two centuries from 1690 until 1906.

(1822 – 1912) was a renowned French sculptor in the academic style. Moreau was born in Dijon, first exhibited in the 1848 Salon, and finally received a medal of honor from the Salon in 1897. He was made mayor of the 19th arrondissement of Paris, and in 1912 had a street named in his honor. His work can be seen at the Palais du Luxembourg, the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Musée d’Orsay and other locations around the world.

Meissen porcelain or Meissen china was the first European hard-paste porcelain. Developed in 1708 by Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death, Johann Friedrich Böttger continued von Tschirnhaus’s work and brought porcelain to the market. The production of porcelain at Meissen, near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans to establish one of the most famous porcelain manufacturers, still in business today as Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production; the mark of the crossed swords is one of the oldest trademarks in existence. It dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756.

Michelangelo Maestri was an Italian artist of the 18th century who died in Rome in 1812. His finest compositions are based on motifs from antique frescos discovered in Pompeii and Herculaneum and from designs by Raphael or his pupil Giulio Romano. His work became very popular and often purchased by European travelers during their Grand Tour. Some of his most famous gouaches portray putti leading animals on a chariot and were inspired by ceiling frescoes in the salone of Villa Lante, on the Janiculum Hill in Rome. Francesco Piranesi and Tommaso Piroli published these frescoes in a series of engravings in 1805 and attributed each drawing to Giulio Romano. Maestri probably knew the engravings as his inscriptions beneath the framing lines (describing the different types of love) are similar to those reported by Piranesi and Piroli.

Paul Sormani (1817-1877) One of the most renowned 19th century French cabinet maker and Bronzier of the highest quality. Paul Sormani established his firm in 1847 at 7 Cimetiere Saint-Nicolas in Paris. Sormani participated in major international exhibitions of 1855, 1862 and 1867. Awarded a bronze medal in 1849 and a first-class medal in 1855. At the Universal Exhibition of 1867, his work has been described as “A quality of workmanship of the highest order”.

Pierre Alexandre Schœnewerk (Paris 1820 – 1885) A French Sculptor who received multiple of the highest awards in Paris and who’s work was displayed in multiple museums and important buildings throughout Europe including The Louvre and La Sorbonne.

Pierre Garnier (c.1726-1806) Master Ébéniste. The son of an Ébéniste , Pierre Garnier was one of the pioneers of the Neoclassical style in furniture. As early as 1761, when other cabinetmakers were still creating furniture in the Rococo style with floral marquetry and curvilinear gilt bronze mounts, Garnier produced furniture based on architectural forms decorated with parquetry and motifs drawn from the architecture of classical antiquity such as swags, rosettes, Greek key patterns, and fluting. The straight lines and sharp corners of the mounts emphasized the geometric furniture forms and the geometric patterns echoed in the grain of the carefully chosen woods, especially darker woods like mahogany and kingwood. 

Garnier worked mainly for important clients who shared his avant-garde tastes. Among them was the marquis de Marigny, minister of arts under Louis XV, and brother of Madame de Pompadour. Marigny, a key supporter of the emerging Neoclassical style, ordered Garnier to supply him with furniture for his house in Paris and his château in the country. Letters between Marigny and the ébéniste indicate that Garnier made and owned his own models for the gilt bronze mounts used on his furniture, an unusual practice and one that broke strict guild regulations

Pierre Gouthière (1732-1814) – born Bar-sur-Aube, was renowned gilder of his time, unsurpassed by any of his rivals. He was the student of François Ceriset and took over his workshop in 1758. Under the protection of the duke d’Aumont, he produced works for King Louis XVI and Princess Marie Antoinette and become the sole gilder for the “Menus-Plaisirs du Roi”. He was the inventor of the matte gilding which became know as the beautiful satin and burnished finish noticed on high quality pieces. He trained famous bronzier Pierre-Philippe Thomire in his studio.
He also produced work for the duchess of Mazarin and Madame du Barry. Unfortunately most of his work was lost or destroyed but some of his finest and most representative creations can still be admired in the Wallace Collection.

Pierre-Maximilien Delafontaine (Pairs 1774 – 1860) was an acclaimed sculptor and portrait painter. His work was display at the Louvre and at the Palais de Versailles.

Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1751–1843) a French sculptor, was the most prominent bronzier, or producer of ornamental patinated and gilt-bronze objects and furniture mounts of the First French Empire. His fashionable Neo-Classical and Empire style furnishing bronzes, established the highest standard in refined finish. Before the French Revolution Thomire produced a set of gilt-bronze wall-lights delivered for Marie-Antoinette’s card-room, her Salon des Jeux at Compiègne

In 1783–84 he received his first notable commission, casting and finishing the gilt-bronze handles modeled by Boizot for a pair of Sèvres porcelain vases, today divided between the Musée du Louvre and Palazzo Pitti. Under the Empire, Thomire purchased the fashionable premises of the marchand-mercier Martin-Éloi Lignereux, for whom he had provided furnishing bronzes in rue Taitbout, Paris. He received a Gold medal at the 1806 Exposition Publique des Produits de l’Industrie. Notably, the first time a bronzier was permitted among the exhibiters. He was also responsible for the ormolu mounts on a secretary desk by Guillaume Beneman, delivered for the King’s cabinet intérieure at Compiègne, in1787.
In a notable commission for Count Nicolay Demidoff in 1819, Thomire produced finely-made figures of Fame with doubled trumpets to serve as handles for the massive malachite-veneered vase now at the Metropoolitan Museum. Thomire retired from his firm in 1823.

His most prestigious commission was the execution of the cradle for the King of Rome.

Pietro Bazzanti, son of the renowned sculptor Nicolò Bazzanti (or Barzanti), was a central figure in the production of Florentine sculpture at the end of the 19th century. He is associated with the sculptors Cesare Lapini, Ferdinando Vichi and Guglielmo Pugi, all of whom executed works bearing the inscription: Galleria Bazzanti. The gallery, originally Bazzanti’s studio, was inaugurated in 1822, winning numerous medals, and is still open today.

Ralph Charles Peyre was a Parisian sculptor born on June 1st. 1872 and was a student of Falguiere, Mercié and Th. Barrau. Peyre showed his works in prestigious art shows where he received honorable mentions.

Sabatino de Angelis et Fils was an Italian foundry in Naples. Active in the late 19th and early 20th century, and was renowned for casting models of famous antiquities in the Museo Nazionale di Napoli. The bronzes were cast using the lost wax method and were given a variety of patinas.

The Manufacture Nationale de Sèvres, located in Sèvres,Hauts-de-Seine, France, has been one of the largest and most renowned manufacturers of fine and important porcelain, since 1740.

It was founded through the support of King Louis XV of France and at the initiative of Madame Pompadour to be located near her Château.

Due to Sèvres’ reputation for excellence and prestige, it has always attracted some of the best artists throughout history; François Boucher, Albert-Ernest Carrier-Belleuse, Étienne Maurice Falconet, Alexandre Fragonard and August Rodin, just to name a few. Many of these artworks can be seen at the Louvre Museum and the Musée National de Céramique in France.

Initially, Sèvres created a soft paste porcelain know as Biscuit de Sèvres.

In 1768 the Bordeaux chemist Villaris and Jean Baptiste Darnet discovered deposits of Kaolin on French soil. In 1771 the Royal Academy sent a report on the creation of hard paste porcelain at which time Sèvres began manufacturing hard paste porcelain.

Louis-Simon Boizot (1743–1809) was a French sculptor renowned for creating Biscuit de Sèvres models, and was the director at Sèvres from 1774-1800, followed by Alexandre Brogniart(1800-1847) and Henri Victor Regnault in 1854.

Silvio Sbricoli Born in Rome in 1864 and died in 1911 As a young man he worked for many years in the studio of the French sculptor Prosper d’Épinay. He was active inside and near Rome, he produced numerous statues, monuments, and portraits in a Realist style. He completed the monument to Giuseppe Verdi (circa 1904) in Viterbo. He also completed the statue of Papiniano (1899) for the Palace of Justice, Rome.[1] At the 1884 Exposition of Fine Arts in Turin, he exhibited two portrait busts in bronze stucco; and at the National Artistic Exposition in Venice of 1887

Sir William Hamo Thornycroft (9 March 1850 – 18 December 1925) was an English sculptor, responsible for some of London’s best known statues. He was a keen student of classical sculpture and became one of the youngest members of the Royal Academy.

Teodoro Matteini (Pistoia, 1753 – Venice, 1831) was an Italian painter, mainly of historical subjects in the Neoclassical style. His father, Ippolito Matteini, born 1720, was a decorative painter and was a teacher of design in Pistoia. Under the patronage of Domenico Corvi.
Matteini moved to Rome to work with Anton Raphael Mengs, until he established his own studio. Matteini painted in Rome for San Lorenzo in Lucina, and was active in Bergamo, Milan, and Venice. In 1802 he was elected professor of painting at the Academy of Fine Arts. Matteini was
able to restore to the Academy a large collection of stucco and terracotta models collected by Abbot Filippo Farsetti.

Matteini is best known for his many pupils, including Giovanni Andrea Darif of Udine, Bartolomeo Ferracina of Bassano, Giovanni Busato of Vicenza, Murari of Florence, Sebastiano Santi of Murano, Francesco Hayez and Cosroe Dusi of Venice, Giovanni De Min of Belluno, Michele Fanolli of Cittadella, and Lodovico Lipparini of Bologna. Among his masterworks are paintings of Angelica and Medoro.

The Susse Frères firm a renowned 19th century Parisian large foundry business. The company is well known for their fine bronze castings with superb chasing. After the death of Pierre-Jules Mène in 1879, the Susse Frères foundry acquired the rights to reproduce his models and produced posthumous proofs marked “Susse foundeur éditeur, Paris”

THEODORE MILLET (1853-1904) Maison Millet was a renowned 19th century furniture atelier that was described as producing Antique furniture and bronze art, specializing in the Louis XV and XVI styles. The company won several awards in a series of exhibitions in London and Paris, such as the gold medal in the 1889 Paris Exposition Universelle, a Grand Prix in 1900 and three further Diplomes d’Honneur and four Médailles d’Or for the furniture they produced. In March 1902, the firm was authorized by the Palace of Versailles to replicate Marie-Antoinette’s celebrated Grand cabinet à bijoux.

William Van Aelst (1626-1683) Dutch Master, Born in Delft, Netherlands. Raised by his uncle, the still-life painter Evert van Aelst, Willem was accepted into the Brotherhood of Saint-Luc, Master Painters, in 1643 and went to live in France two years later, for four years.

In 1649 he traveled to Florence where his paintings were acquired by the Medicis Cosimo III and Leopoldo, his success was considerable. A craftsman of extraordinary skill, Van Aelst painted the sorts of objects customary among his fellow still-life producers: flowers in ornate, precious vases, and ripe fruit. He was so much in demand that he was hard pressed to satisfy the demands on his talent. The Italians named him Guillielmo D’Olanda, and he made it a habit to sign his first name as Guillielmo. His paintings may be seen all throughout Europe in the finest Museums in Amsterdam, Berlin, Brussels and of course Italy and France – Louvre.

Zacharie Joseph Raingo (1775- 1839), Son of watchmaker Nicolas Raingo, was a renowned clockmaker and bronzier, and founded Raingo Frères in 1813 Paris, with his three brothers.

Raingo Frères was named the “Horloger-Mécanicien” by the Duke of Orleans and “Horloger -Mécanicien du Garde-Meuble de la Couronne” (Supplier of the King of France) in 1824. King George IV of England was also a collector.

Known for the quality of their ormolu, Raingo Frères had furnished bronzes and garniture for Emperor Napoleon III and the Empress Eugenia, examples of which are now in the collection of The Louvre.

Raingo Frères exhibited at the World’s Fairs in Paris from 1884 to 1889, and won prizes at all of them, including a gold medal in 1889. In 1862 they also exhibited at the Universal Exhibition in London.